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CFD | Computational Fluid Dynamics


What is CFD? | What is Computational Fluid Dynamics?

          The technique of mathematically simulating a fluid flow-related physical event and then solving it numerically using computer know-how is known as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Aerodynamics is a key component of the engineering process when a new product, like an aircraft, is being created by an engineer. Aerodynamic processes, however, are difficult to quantify during the concept stage. Typically, the engineer can only physically test product prototypes in order to refine his designs. The field of computational fluid dynamics has developed into a widely used technique for developing solutions for fluid flows with or without solid interaction as a result of the development of computers and ever-increasing computational capability. When using CFD software, fluid flow is examined in relation to its physical characteristics, including velocity, pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity, among others. Those features must be taken into account simultaneously in order to practically develop an accurate solution for a physical phenomenon connected to fluid flow.  In a CFD software tool, the fluid flow is analysed using a numerical method and a mathematical model of the physical scenario. The type of problem, such as heat transmission, mass transfer, phase change, chemical reaction, etc., determines the type of mathematical model to use. Moreover, the process’s overall structure has a significant impact on how reliable a CFD study is. In order to make a convincing argument for the problem’s solution, the mathematical model’s validation is crucial. In addition, choosing appropriate numerical techniques is essential for producing a solid answer. Since there might be a significant reduction in the quantity of physical prototypes, CFD analysis is a crucial component of creating a sustainable product development process.

How to perform CFD analysis?

      These three phases generally make up a CFD analysis:

1. Pre-processing

          The problem statement is turned into a computer model that is idealized and discretized during this phase. The type of flow that will be modelled is assumed to be, for instance, viscous/in viscid, compressible/incompressible, and steady/unsteady. Mesh generation and the application of initial and boundary conditions are other operations that are involved.

2. Processing

          The solver is responsible for carrying out the actual calculations, which calls for computational power. There are various solvers that can solve different physical phenomena, with differing levels of effectiveness.


          In the post-processing stage, the results are finally seen and examined. At this point, the analyst can confirm the findings and develop inferences based on them. Examples of how the results can be presented include still or moving images, graphs, or tables.